This virus is known as the Nairovirus because of its spread from the ticks or through contact with the blood or other fluids from the infected animals and humans. This virus belongs to Bunyaviridae family. In Pakistan, this virus was first reported from the regions of Baluchistan and KPK in 1976, at that time it was not a much prevalent disease but up to 2000, its victims increased and now the death toll in Baluchistan has increased to 91.
Hosts of this virus are commonly hares, birds, domestic animals and adult ticks. Pakistan being an agricultural country depends on the earning of their livelihoods from the agricultural lands or by selling the products of domestic animals that rear. This disease is mostly caught by the farmers or the keepers of goats, sheep, cattle etc. Ticks usually live on the skin or in the furs of these animals and the virus usually hosts ticks and gets transmitted to the workers that come in contact with infected animals or their body fluids. This virus also gets transmitted during slaughtering and butchering of animals.
Once transmitted to the new host by the tick bite, the incubation period of virus ranges from 1-3 days or 9 days max. The incubation period ranges from 5-6 days or up to 13 days after contact with infected animal’s body fluids.
There are few noticeable symptoms of Congo virus:
There is no known vaccine for this virus to use in animals but in the case of humans, this fever can be treated using Ribavirin, which is an antiviral drug. Ribavirin can be given both orally and intravenously as prescribed by the physician. It is not a specific treatment protocol but it must start immediately after the virus detection when required by the physician’s prescription (reported by WHO, Ministry of Health Govt. of Pakistan and National Institute of Health, Islamabad).